Table of Contents

1. About This Reference
1.1. Overview
1.2. Conventions Used in This Reference
1.2.1. Product Codes
1.2.2. Applicable Products
2. Element Classifications
2.1. Overview of Element Characteristics
2.1.1. Identifying Element Types
2.1.2. 2-D vs. 3-D Elements
2.1.3. Element Shape Characteristics
2.1.4. Element Degrees of Freedom and Discipline
2.1.5. User-Defined Elements
2.2. Summary of Element Types
2.3. Selecting Elements for Your Analysis
2.4. Current-Technology Elements
2.4.1. Legacy vs. Current Element Technologies
2.5. Degenerated Shape Elements
2.5.1. Obtaining the Best Results from Degenerated Shape Elements
2.5.2. Degenerated Triangular 2-D Solid and Shell Elements
2.5.3. Degenerated Triangular Prism Elements
2.5.4. Degenerated Tetrahedral Elements
2.5.5. Surface Stresses on Condensed Element Faces
2.6. Special-Purpose Elements
2.6.1. Superelements
2.6.2. User-Defined Elements
2.7. GUI-Inaccessible Elements
3. General Element Features
3.1. Element Input
3.1.1. Element Name
3.1.2. Nodes
3.1.3. Degrees of Freedom
3.1.4. Material Properties
3.1.5. Special Element Features
3.1.6. Sections
3.1.7. Real Constants
3.1.8. Element Loading
3.1.9. Nodal Loading
3.1.10. Element Properties and Controls (KEYOPTs)
3.2. Solution Output
3.2.1. Output File Contents
3.2.2. Results File and Database Contents
3.2.3. Element Solution
3.2.4. Nodal Solution
3.3. Coordinate Systems
3.3.1. Understanding the Element Coordinate System
3.3.2. Elements That Operate in the Nodal Coordinate System
3.3.3. Solution Coordinate Systems
4. Element Support for Material Models
5. Elements for Stress Analysis
5.1. Continuum Stress Elements
5.1.1. Stress States in 2-D Continuum Elements
5.1.2. Element Technologies
5.1.3. Mixed u-P Formulation
5.1.4. Generalized Plane Strain Options
5.1.5. Axisymmetric Elements with Nonaxisymmetric Loads
5.2. Shell Elements
5.2.1. Axisymmetric Shells
5.2.2. Shell Stress and Stiffness
5.2.3. Membrane and Surface Stress Options
5.2.4. Shell Shear and Warping
5.2.5. Curved Shell Elements
5.2.6. Shell Element Coordinate System
5.2.7. Shell Element Nodes
5.3. Beam and Link (Truss) Elements
5.4. Pipe Elements
5.5. Reinforcing Elements
5.5.1. Discrete Reinforcing
5.5.2. Smeared Reinforcing
5.6. Surface Elements
5.7. Elements Used to Model the Truncation of an Infinite Structural Domain
5.7.1. Structural Infinite Element
5.7.2. Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) for Structural Elements
5.7.3. Recommendations for Infinite Element vs. PML
5.8. Automatic Selection of Element Technologies and Formulations
5.9. Elements Under Linear Perturbation
5.9.1. Material Properties of Structural Elements in Linear Perturbation
5.9.2. Interpretation of Structural Element Results After a Linear Perturbation Analysis
5.9.3. Loads, Initial Conditions, and Other Limitations in Linear Perturbation
6. Elements for Multiphysics Analysis
6.1. Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis
6.1.1. Coupled-Field Element Classifications
6.1.2. Selecting Elements for Coupled-Physics Analysis
6.2. Elements for Thermal Analysis
6.2.1. Thermal Elements for the Structural Region
6.2.2. Thermal Elements for the Fluid Region
6.2.3. Thermal Loading Elements
6.2.4. Thermal Control Element
6.2.5. Other Elements Useful in a Thermal Analysis
6.3. Elements for Acoustic Analysis
6.3.1. Acoustic Element Types
6.3.2. 3-D Acoustic Element Usage
6.3.3. 3-D Acoustic Element Input
6.3.4. 3-D Acoustic Element Input Summary
6.3.5. 3-D Acoustic Element Output Data
6.3.6. 3-D Acoustic Element Assumptions and Restrictions
6.3.7. 3-D Acoustic Element Product Restrictions
6.4. Elements for Electric and Magnetic Analysis
6.5. Elements for Diffusion Analysis
7. Element Library
I. Element Library
SOLID5 - 3-D Coupled-Field Solid
LINK11 - Linear Actuator
PLANE13 - 2-D Coupled-Field Solid
COMBIN14 - Spring-Damper
MASS21 - Structural Mass
PLANE25 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Structural Solid
MATRIX27 - Stiffness, Damping, or Mass Matrix
FLUID29 - 2-D Axisymmetric Harmonic Acoustic Fluid
FLUID30 - 3-D Acoustic Fluid
LINK31 - Radiation Link
LINK33 - 3-D Conduction Bar
LINK34 - Convection Link
PLANE35 - 2-D 6-Node Triangular Thermal Solid
SOURC36 - Current Source
COMBIN37 - Control
FLUID38 - Dynamic Fluid Coupling
COMBIN39 - Nonlinear Spring
COMBIN40 - Combination
INFIN47 - 3-D Infinite Boundary
MATRIX50 - Superelement (or Substructure)
PLANE55 - 2-D Thermal Solid
SHELL61 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic Structural Shell
SOLID65 - 3-D Reinforced Concrete Solid
LINK68 - Coupled Thermal-Electric Line
SOLID70 - 3-D Thermal Solid
MASS71 - Thermal Mass
PLANE75 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic 4-Node Thermal Solid
PLANE77 - 2-D 8-Node Thermal Solid
PLANE78 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Thermal Solid
PLANE83 - Axisymmetric-Harmonic 8-Node Structural Solid
SOLID87 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Thermal Solid
SOLID90 - 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid
CIRCU94 - Piezoelectric Circuit
SOLID96 - 3-D Magnetic Scalar Solid
SOLID98 - Tetrahedral Coupled-Field Solid
INFIN110 - 2-D Infinite Solid
INFIN111 - 3-D Infinite Solid
FLUID116 - Coupled Thermal-Fluid Pipe
PLANE121 - 2-D 8-Node Electrostatic Solid
SOLID122 - 3-D 20-Node Electrostatic Solid
SOLID123 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electrostatic Solid
CIRCU124 - Electric Circuit
CIRCU125 - Diode
TRANS126 - Electromechanical Transducer
FLUID129 - 2-D Infinite Acoustic
FLUID130 - 3-D Infinite Acoustic
SHELL131 - 4-Node Thermal Shell
SHELL132 - 8-Node Thermal Shell
FLUID136 - 3-D Squeeze Film Fluid Element
FLUID138 - 3-D Viscous Fluid Link Element
FLUID139 - 3-D Slide Film Fluid Element
ROM144 - Reduced Order Electrostatic-Structural
SURF151 - 2-D Thermal Surface Effect
SURF152 - 3-D Thermal Surface Effect
SURF153 - 2-D Structural Surface Effect
SURF154 - 3-D Structural Surface Effect
SURF155 - 3-D Thermal Surface Effect
SURF156 - 3-D Structural Surface Line Load Effect
SHELL157 - Thermal-Electric Shell
SURF159 - General Axisymmetric Surface
LINK160 - Explicit 3-D Spar (or Truss)
BEAM161 - Explicit 3-D Beam
PLANE162 - Explicit 2-D Structural Solid
SHELL163 - Explicit Thin Structural Shell
SOLID164 - Explicit 3-D Structural Solid
COMBI165 - Explicit Spring-Damper
MASS166 - Explicit 3-D Structural Mass
LINK167 - Explicit Tension-Only Spar
SOLID168 - Explicit 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid
TARGE169 - 2-D Target Segment
TARGE170 - 3-D Target Segment
CONTA171 - 2-D 2-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact
CONTA172 - 2-D 3-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact
CONTA173 - 3-D 4-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact
CONTA174 - 3-D 8-Node Surface-to-Surface Contact
CONTA175 - 2-D/3-D Node-to-Surface Contact
CONTA176 - 3-D Line-to-Line Contact
CONTA177 - 3-D Line-to-Surface Contact
CONTA178 - 3-D Node-to-Node Contact
PRETS179 - Pretension
LINK180 - 3-D Spar (or Truss)
SHELL181 - 4-Node Structural Shell
PLANE182 - 2-D 4-Node Structural Solid
PLANE183 - 2-D 8-Node or 6-Node Structural Solid
MPC184 - Multipoint Constraint Element
MPC184-Link/Beam - Multipoint Constraint Element: Rigid Link or Rigid Beam
MPC184-Slider - Multipoint Constraint Element: Slider
MPC184-Revolute - Multipoint Constraint Element: Revolute Joint
MPC184-Universal - Multipoint Constraint Element: Universal Joint
MPC184-Slot - Multipoint Constraint Element: Slot Joint
MPC184-Point - Multipoint Constraint Element: Point-in-plane Joint
MPC184-Translational - Multipoint Constraint Element: Translational Joint
MPC184-Cylindrical - Multipoint Constraint Element: Cylindrical Joint
MPC184-Planar - Multipoint Constraint Element: Planar Joint
MPC184-Weld - Multipoint Constraint Element: Weld Joint
MPC184-Orient - Multipoint Constraint Element: Orient Joint
MPC184-Spherical - Multipoint Constraint Element: Spherical Joint
MPC184-General - Multipoint Constraint Element: General Joint
MPC184-Screw - Multipoint Constraint Element: Screw Joint
SOLID185 - 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid
SOLID186 - 3-D 20-Node Structural Solid
SOLID187 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid
BEAM188 - 3-D 2-Node Beam
BEAM189 - 3-D 3-Node Beam
SOLSH190 - 3-D 8-Node Structural Solid Shell
INTER192 - 2-D 4-Node Gasket
INTER193 - 2-D 6-Node Gasket
INTER194 - 3-D 16-Node Gasket
INTER195 - 3-D 8-Node Gasket
MESH200 - Meshing Facet
FOLLW201 - Follower Load
INTER202 - 2-D 4-Node Cohesive
INTER203 - 2-D 6-Node Cohesive
INTER204 - 3-D 16-Node Cohesive
INTER205 - 3-D 8-Node Cohesive
SHELL208 - 2-Node Axisymmetric Shell
SHELL209 - 3-Node Axisymmetric Shell
CPT212 - 2-D 4-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure-Thermal Mechanical Solid
CPT213 - 2-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure-Thermal Mechanical Solid
COMBI214 - 2-D Spring-Damper Bearing
CPT215 - 3-D 8-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure-Thermal Mechanical Solid
CPT216 - 3-D 20-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure-Thermal Mechanical Solid
CPT217 - 3-D 10-Node Coupled Pore-Pressure-Thermal Mechanical Solid
FLUID218 - 3-D Hydrodynamic Bearing Element
FLUID220 - 3-D Acoustic Fluid 20-Node Solid Element
FLUID221 - 3-D Acoustic Fluid 10-Node Solid Element
PLANE222 - 2-D 4-Node Coupled-Field Solid
PLANE223 - 2-D 8-Node Coupled-Field Solid
SOLID226 - 3-D 20-Node Coupled-Field Solid
SOLID227 - 3-D 10-Node Coupled-Field Solid
PLANE230 - 2-D 8-Node Electric Solid
SOLID231 - 3-D 20-Node Electric Solid
SOLID232 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Electric Solid
PLANE233 - 2-D 8-Node Electromagnetic Solid
SOLID236 - 3-D 20-Node Electromagnetic Solid
SOLID237 - 3-D 10-Node Electromagnetic Solid
PLANE238 - 2-D 8-Node Diffusion Solid
SOLID239 - 3-D 20-Node Diffusion Solid
SOLID240 - 3-D 10-Node Tetrahedral Diffusion Solid
HSFLD241 - 2-D Hydrostatic Fluid
HSFLD242 - 3-D Hydrostatic Fluid
SURF251 - 2-D Radiosity Surface
SURF252 - 3-D Radiosity Surface
INFIN257 - Structural Infinite Solid
REINF263 - 2-D Smeared Reinforcing
REINF264 - 3-D Discrete Reinforcing
REINF265 - 3-D Smeared Reinforcing
SOLID272 - General Axisymmetric Solid with 4 Base Nodes
SOLID273 - General Axisymmetric Solid with 8 Base Nodes
SOLID278 - 3-D 8-Node Thermal Solid
SOLID279 - 3-D 20-Node Thermal Solid
SHELL281 - 8-Node Structural Shell
SOLID285 - 3-D 4-Node Tetrahedral Structural Solid with Nodal Pressures
PIPE288 - 3-D 2-Node Pipe
PIPE289 - 3-D 3-Node Pipe
ELBOW290 - 3-D 3-Node Elbow
USER300 - User-Defined Element

Release 18.2 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.