2D 8Node
CoupledField Solid
PLANE223 supports the following physics combinations:
StructuralThermal
Piezoresistive
ElectrostaticStructural
Piezoelectric
ThermalElectric
StructuralThermoelectric
ThermalPiezoelectric
ThermalMagnetic
ThermalElectricMagnetic
StructuralDiffusion
ThermalDiffusion
ElectricDiffusion
ThermalElectricDiffusion
StructuralThermalDiffusion
StructuralElectricDiffusion
StructuralThermalElectricDiffusion
The element has eight nodes with up to five degrees of freedom per node.
Structural capabilities include elasticity, plasticity, hyperelasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, creep, large strain, large deflection, and stress stiffening effects. It also has mixed formulation capability for simulating deformations of nearly incompressible elastoplastic materials, and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials.
Piezoresistive capabilities include the piezoresistive effect. Piezoelectric capabilities include direct and converse piezoelectric effects. Electrostaticstructural capabilities include electrostatic force coupling. Thermoelectric capabilities include Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects, as well as Joule heating. In addition to thermal expansion, structuralthermal capabilities include the piezocaloric effect in dynamic analyses. The Coriolis effect is available for analyses with structural degrees of freedom. The thermoplastic effect is available for analyses with structural and thermal degrees of freedom.
Thermoelectromagnetic capabilities include eddy current and Joule heating effects for transient analyses. In electromagnetic analyses, all VOLT degrees of freedom must be coupled (CP) in a 2D electromagnetic region such that the voltage drop across the thickness has a single value. The element has nonlinear magnetic capability for modeling BH curves or permanent magnet demagnetization curves for static and transient coupledfield analyses.
The diffusion expansion and hydrostatic stressmigration effects are available for analyses with structural and diffusion degrees of freedom. The thermomigration effect (Soret effect) and the temperaturedependent saturated concentration effect is available for analyses with thermal and diffusion degrees of freedom. The electromigration effect is available for analyses with electrical and diffusion degrees of freedom.
See PLANE223 in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference for more details about this element.
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 223.1: PLANE223 Geometry. The element input data includes eight nodes and structural, thermal, electrical, and magnetic material properties.
The type of units (MKS or user defined) for electromagnetic problems is specified through the EMUNIT command. EMUNIT also determines the value of freespace permittivity, EPZRO, and freespace permeability, MUZRO. The element input for magnetic material properties is the same as PLANE233; see "PLANE233 Input Data" for details.
KEYOPT(1) determines the element DOF set and the corresponding force labels and reaction solution. KEYOPT(1) is set equal to the sum of the field keys shown in Table 223.1: PLANE223 Field Keys. For example, KEYOPT(1) is set to 11 for a structuralthermal analysis (structural field key + thermal field key = 1 + 10). For a structuralthermal analysis, UX, UY, and TEMP are the DOF labels and force and heat flow are the reaction solution.
Table 223.1: PLANE223 Field Keys
Field  Field Key  DOF Label  Force Label  Reaction Solution 

Structural  1  UX, UY  FX, FY  Force 
Thermal  10  TEMP  HEAT  Heat Flow 
Electric Conduction  100  VOLT  AMPS  Electric Current 
Electrostatic  1000  VOLT  CHRG  Electric Charge 
Magnetic  10000  AZ  CSGZ  Magnetic Current Segment 
Diffusion  100000  CONC  RATE  Diffusion Flow Rate 
The coupledfield analysis KEYOPT(1) settings, DOF labels, force labels, reaction solutions, and analysis types are shown in the following table.
Table 223.2: PLANE223 CoupledField Analyses
CoupledField Analysis  KEYOPT(1)  DOF Label  Force Label  Reaction Solution  Analysis Type 

StructuralThermal [1], [2]  11 
UX, UY, TEMP 
FX, FY, HEAT 
Force, Heat Flow 
Static Full Harmonic Full Transient 
Piezoresistive  101 
UX, UY, VOLT 
FX, FY, AMPS 
Force, Electric Current 
Static Full Transient 
ElectrostaticStructural  1001 [3] 
UX, UY, VOLT 
FX, FY, CHRG 
Force, Electric Charge (negative) 
Static Full Transient Linear Perturbation Static Linear Perturbation Harmonic Linear Perturbation Modal 
Piezoelectric  1001 [3] 
UX, UY, VOLT 
FX, FY, CHRG 
Force, Electric Charge (negative) 
Static Modal Linear Perturbation Modal Full, Linear Perturbation, or Mode Superposition Harmonic Full or Mode Superposition Transient 
ThermalElectric  110 
TEMP, VOLT 
HEAT, AMPS 
Heat Flow, Electric Current 
Static Full Transient 
StructuralThermoelectric [1]  111 
UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT 
FX, FY, HEAT, AMPS 
Force, Heat Flow, Electric Current 
Static Full Transient 
ThermalPiezoelectric [1], [2]  1011 
UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT 
FX, FY, HEAT, CHRG 
Force, Heat Flow, Electric Charge (negative) 
Static Full Harmonic Full Transient 
ThermalMagnetic  10010 
TEMP, AZ 
HEAT, CSGZ 
Heat Flow, Magnetic Current Segment 
Static Full Transient 
ThermalElectricMagnetic  10110 
TEMP, VOLT, AZ 
HEAT, AMPS CSGZ 
Heat Flow, Electric Current Magnetic Current Segment 
Static Full Transient 
StructuralDiffusion [1]  100001 
UX, UY, CONC 
FX, FY, RATE 
Force, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
ThermalDiffusion [1]  100010 
TEMP, CONC 
HEAT, RATE 
Heat Flow, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
ElectricDiffusion [1]  100100 
VOLT, CONC, 
AMPS, RATE 
Electric Current, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
ThermalElectricDiffusion [1]  100110 
TEMP, VOLT, CONC 
HEAT, AMPS, RATE 
Heat Flow, Electric Current, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
StructuralThermalDiffusion [1]  100011 
UX, UY, TEMP, CONC 
FX, FY, HEAT, RATE 
Force, Heat Flow, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
StructuralElectricDiffusion [1]  100101 
UX, UY, VOLT, CONC 
FX, FY, AMPS, RATE 
Force, Electric Current, Diffusion Flow Rate, 
Static, Full Transient 
StructuralThermalElectricDiffusion [1]  100111 
UX, UY, TEMP, VOLT, CONC 
FX, FY, HEAT, AMPS, RATE 
Force, Heat Flow, Electric Current, Diffusion Flow Rate 
Static Full Transient 
For static and full transient analyses, KEYOPT(2) can specify a strong (matrix) or weak (load vector) structuralthermal, structuraldiffusion, thermaldiffusion, and electric diffusion coupling.
For harmonic analyses, only strong coupling (KEYOPT(2) = 0) applies.
The electrostaticstructural analysis available with KEYOPT(1) = 1001 defaults to electrostatic force coupling, unless a piezoelectric matrix is specified on TB,PIEZ.
As shown in the following tables, material property requirements consist of those required for the individual fields (structural, thermal, electric conduction, electrostatic, magnetic, or diffusion) and those required for field coupling. Individual material properties are defined via the MP and MPDATA commands. Nonlinear and multiphysics material models are defined via the TB command. (The nonlinear material models do not apply to piezoelectric analyses (TB,PIEZ) where KEYOPT(1) = 1001 or 1011).
Nonlinear orthotropic magnetic properties can be specified with a combination of a BH curve (TB,BH command) and linear relative permeability. The BH curve is used in each element coordinate direction where a zero value of relative permeability is specified. Only one BH curve may be specified per material.
Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties
Field  Field Key  Material Properties and Material Models 

Structural  1 
EX, EY, EZ, PRXY, PRYZ, PRXZ (or NUXY, NUYZ, NUXZ), GXY, GYZ, GXZ, DENS, ALPD, BETD, DMPR ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ, or THSX, THSY, THSZ), REFT  Anisotropic hyperelasticity, Anisotropic elasticity, BergstromBoyce, Bilinear isotropic hardening, Bilinear kinematic hardening, Cast iron, Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening, Creep, Elasticity, Extended DruckerPrager, Gurson pressuredependent plasticity, Hill anisotropy, Hyperelasticity, Mullins effect, Voce isotropic hardening law, Plasticity, Prony series constants for viscoelastic materials, Ratedependent plasticity (viscoplasticity), Rateindependent plasticity, Material structural damping, Shift function for viscoelastic materials, Shape memory alloy, Uniaxial stressstrain relation 
Table 223.4: PLANE223 Material Properties and Material Models
CoupledField Analysis  KEYOPT(1)  Field  Material Properties and Material Models 

StructuralThermal  11  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF  
Coupling 
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, REFT, QRATE  
Piezoresistive [1]  101  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Coupling  
ElectrostaticStructural  1001  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Electric 
PERX, PERY   
Piezoelectric  1001  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Electric 
PERX, PERY, LSST (and/or RSVX, RSVY)   
Coupling  
ThermalElectric [1]  110  Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF 
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Coupling 
SBKX, SBKY  
StructuralThermoelectric  111  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF  
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Coupling 
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, REFT, QRATE  SBKX, SBKY   
ThermalPiezoelectric  1011  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF  
Electric 
PERX, PERY, LSST (and/or RSVX, RSVY)   
Coupling 
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, REFT   
ThermalMagnetic  10010  Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH 
Magnetic 
MURX, MURY, MGXX, MGYY   
Coupling 
RSVZ  
ThermalElectricMagnetic  10110  Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH 
Electric  RSVZ  
Magnetic 
MURX, MURY, MGXX, MGYY   
Coupling  RSVZ  
StructuralDiffusion [1]  100001  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
BETX, BETY, CREF   
ThermalDiffusion [1]  100010  Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF 
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
Temperaturedependent CSAT   
ElectricDiffusion [1]  100100  Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY 
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling  
ThermalElectricDiffusion [1]  100110  Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF 
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
SBKX, SBKY  Temperaturedependent CSAT   
StructuralThermalDiffusion [1]  100011  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF  
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, REFT, QRATE  BETX, BETY, CREF  Temperaturedependent CSAT   
StructuralElectricDiffusion [1]  100101  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
BETX, BETY, CREF   
StructuralThermalElectricDiffusion [1]  100111  Structural  See Table 223.3: Structural Material Properties 
Thermal 
KXX, KYY, DENS, C, ENTH, HF  
Electric 
RSVX, RSVY, PERX, PERY  
Diffusion 
DXX, DYY, CSAT  
Coupling 
ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ, REFT, QRATE  BETX, BETY, CREF  SBKX, SBKY  Temperaturedependent CSAT  
For this analysis type, some of the material properties can be defined as a function of primary variables by using tabular input on the MP command. For more information, see Defining Materials Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the Mechanical APDL Basic Analysis Guide.
Various combinations of nodal loading are available for this element (depending upon the KEYOPT(1) value). Nodal loads are defined with the D and the F commands. Nodal forces, if any, should be input per unit of depth for a plane analysis and on a full 360° basis for an axisymmetric analysis.
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Surface loads may be input on the element faces indicated by the circled numbers in Figure 223.1: PLANE223 Geometry using the SF and SFE commands. Positive pressures act into the element. Body loads may be input at the element's nodes or as a single element value using the BF and BFE commands.
PLANE223 surface and body loads are given in the following table.
Most surface and body loads can be defined as a function of primary variables by using tabular input. For more information, see Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the Mechanical APDL Basic Analysis Guide and the individual surface or body load command description in the Command Reference.
Table 223.5: PLANE223 Surface and Body Loads
CoupledField Analysis  KEYOPT(1)  Load Type  Load  Command Label  

StructuralThermal  11  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 
Piezoresistive  101  Surface 

 
Body 

 

 
ElectrostaticStructural and Piezoelectric  1001  Surface 

 
Body 

 

 

 
ThermalElectric  110  Surface 

 
Body 

 
StructuralThermoelectric  111  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 
ThermalPiezoelectric  1011  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 

 
ThermalMagnetic  10010  Surface 

 
Body 

 

 
ThermalElectricMagnetic  10110  Surface 

 
Body 

 

 
StructuralDiffusion  100001  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 

 
ThermalDiffusion  100010  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 
ElectricDiffusion  100100  Surface 

 
Body 

 

 
ThermalElectricDiffusion  100110  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 
StructuralThermalDiffusion  100011  Surface 

 

 

 
Body 

 

 

 
StructuralElectricDiffusion  100101  Surface 

 

 
Body 

 

 

 
StructuralThermalElectricDiffusion  100111  Surface 

 

 

 
Body 

 

 


Automatic element technology selections are given in the following table.
Table 223.6: Automatic Element Technology Selection
CoupledField Analysis  ETCONTROL Command Suggestions/Resettings 

StructuralThermal (KEYOPT(1) = 11) StructuralThermoelactric (KEYOPT(1) = 111)  KEYOPT(2) = 1 for nonlinear inelastic materials 
A summary of the element input is given in "PLANE223 Input Summary". A general description of element input is given in Element Input. For axisymmetric applications see Harmonic Axisymmetric Elements.
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P
Set by KEYOPT(1). See Table 223.2: PLANE223 CoupledField Analyses.
None
See Table 223.4: PLANE223 Material Properties and Material Models.
Birth and death 
Coriolis effect 
Element technology autoselect 
Large deflection 
Large strain 
Linear perturbation (electrostaticstructural and piezoelectric analyses only [KEYOPT(1) = 1001]) 
Nonlinear stabilization 
Stress stiffening 
Element degrees of freedom. See Table 223.2: PLANE223 CoupledField Analyses.
Coupling method between the DOFs for the following types of coupling: structuralthermal, structuraldiffusion, thermaldiffusion, and electricdiffusion.
Strong (matrix) coupling. Produces an unsymmetric matrix. In a linear analysis, a coupled response is achieved after one iteration.
Weak (load vector) coupling. Produces a symmetric matrix and requires at least two iterations to achieve a coupled response.
Note: The weak coupling option (KEYOPT(2) = 1) can be used in a coupled electrostaticstructural analysis (KEYOPT(1) = 1001) to produce legacy element behavior. In this case, the reaction solution for the VOLT degree of freedom is positive charge (CHRG), and the analysis types are limited to static and full transient analyses. Linear perturbation analyses are not supported.
Element behavior:
Plane stress
Axisymmetric
Plane strain
Electrostatic force in electrostaticstructural analysis (KEYOPT(1) = 1001):
Applied to every element node.
Applied to the airstructure interface or to element nodes that have constrained structural degrees of freedom.
Not applied.
For more information, see ElectrostaticStructural Analysis in the CoupledField Analysis Guide.
Electromagnetic force output for coupledfield analysis:
At each element node (corner and midside)
At element corner nodes only (midside node forces are condensed to the corner nodes)
Electromagnetic force calculation for coupledfield analysis:
Maxwell
Lorentz
Thermoelastic damping (piezocaloric effect) in coupledfield analyses having structural and thermal DOFs. Applicable to harmonic and transient analyses only.
Active
Suppressed (required for frictional heating analyses)
Specific heat matrix in coupledfield analyses having the thermal DOF (TEMP), or damping matrix in coupledfield analyses having the diffusion DOF (CONC).
Consistent
Diagonalized
Diagonalized. Temperaturedependent specific heat or enthalpy is evaluated at the element centroid.
Element formulation in coupledfield analyses with structural DOFs:
Pure displacement formulation (default)
Mixed uP formulation (not valid with plane stress)
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
Nodal degrees of freedom included in the overall nodal solution
Additional element output as shown in Table 223.7: PLANE223 Element Output Definitions.
The element output directions are parallel to the element coordinate system. A general description of solution output is given in Solution Output. See the Basic Analysis Guide for ways to view results.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “” indicates that the item is not available.
Table 223.7: PLANE223 Element Output Definitions
Name  Definition  O  R 

ALL ANALYSES  
EL  Element Number    Y 
NODES  Nodes  I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P    Y 
MAT  Material number    Y 
VOLU:  Volume    Y 
XC, YC  Location where results are reported    2 
ALL ANALYSES WITH A STRUCTURAL FIELD  
S:X, Y, Z, XY  Stresses (SZ = 0.0 for plane stress elements)    1 
S:1, 2, 3  Principal stresses    1 
S:EQV  Equivalent stress    1 
EPEL:X, Y, Z, XY  Elastic strains    1 
EPTH:X, Y, Z, XY  Thermal strains    1 
EPTH:EQV  Equivalent thermal strain [3]    1 
EPPL:X, Y, Z, XY  Plastic strains    1 
EPPL:EQV  Equivalent plastic strain [3]    1 
EPCR:X, Y, Z, XY  Creep strains    1 
EPCR:EQV  Equivalent creep strain [3]    1 
EPTO:X, Y, Z, XY  Total mechanical strains (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR)     
EPTO:EQV  Total equivalent mechanical strain (EPEL + EPPL + EPCR)     
NL:SEPL  Plastic yield stress [10]    Y 
NL:EPEQ  Accumulated equivalent plastic strain [10]    Y 
NL:CREQ  Accumulated equivalent creep strain [10]    Y 
NL:SRAT  Plastic yielding (1 = actively yielding, 0 = not yielding) [10]    Y 
NL:HPRES  Hydrostatic pressure [10]    Y 
SENE:  Elastic strain energy    Y 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALTHERMAL ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 11) [11]  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
UE  Elastic strain energy    1 
UT  Total strain energy [8]    1 
PHEAT  Plastic heat generation rate per unit volume    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR PIEZORESISTIVE ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 101) [11]  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) (X, Y) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5]    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR ELECTROSTATICSTRUCTURAL ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 1001) [11]  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
D:X, Y, SUM  Electric flux density components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
FMAG:X, Y, SUM  Electrostatic force components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
UE, UD  Stored elastic and dielectric energies    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR PIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 1001) [11]  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
D:X, Y, SUM  Electric flux density components (X, Y) and vector magnitude    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
UE, UM, UD  Elastic, mutual, and dielectric energies [7]    1 
UT  Total strain energy [8]    1 
THERMALELECTRIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 110)  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALTHERMOELECTRIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 111) [11]  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
UT  Total strain energy [8]    1 
PHEAT  Plastic heat generation rate per unit volume    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR THERMALPIEZOELECTRIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 1011) [11]  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
D:X, Y, SUM  Electric flux density components and vector magnitude    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
UE, UM, UD  Elastic, mutual, and dielectric energies [7]    1 
UT  Total strain energy [8]    1 
PHEAT  Plastic heat generation rate per unit volume    1 
THERMALMAGNETIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 10010)  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
B:X, Y, SUM  Magnetic flux density components and vector magnitude    1 
H:X, Y, SUM  Magnetic field intensity components and vector magnitude    1 
FMAG:X, Y, SUM  Electromagnetic force components and magnitude    1 
JT:Z, SUM  Conduction current density Z component (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume    1 
THERMALELECTRICMAGNETIC ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 10110)  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:Z, SUM  Electric field intensity Z component and vector magnitude    1 
JC:Z, SUM  Conduction current density Z component and vector magnitude    1 
B:X, Y, SUM  Magnetic flux density components and vector magnitude    1 
H:X, Y, SUM  Magnetic field intensity components and vector magnitude    1 
FMAG:X, Y, SUM  Electromagnetic force components and magnitude    1 
JT:Z, SUM  Conduction current density Z component (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude    1 
JS:Z, SUM  Current density Z component (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100001) [11]  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EPDI:X, Y, Z, XY  Diffusion strains    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
THERMALDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100010)  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
ELECTRICDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100100)  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
THERMALELECTRICDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100110)  
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Current density components (in the global Cartesian coordinate system) and vector magnitude [4]    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALELECTRICDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100101) [11]  
TEMP  Input temperatures    Y 
EPDI:X, Y, Z, XY  Diffusion strains    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALTHERMALDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100011) [11]  
EPDI:X, Y, Z, XY  Diffusion strains    1 
TG:X, Y, SUM  Thermal gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
ADDITIONAL OUTPUT FOR STRUCTURALTHERMALELECTRICDIFFUSION ANALYSES (KEYOPT(1) = 100111) [11]  
EPDI:X, Y, Z, XY  Diffusion strains    1 
TF:X, Y, SUM  Thermal flux components and vector magnitude    1 
EF:X, Y, SUM  Electric field components and vector magnitude    1 
JC:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JS:X, Y, SUM  Conduction current density components and vector magnitude    1 
JHEAT  Joule heat generation per unit volume [5], [6]    1 
CG:X, Y, SUM  Concentration gradient components and vector magnitude    1 
DF:X, Y, SUM  Diffusion flux components and vector magnitude    1 
CONC  Element concentration [9]    1 
Solution values are output only if calculated (based on input values).
Available only at centroid as a *GET item.
The equivalent strains use an effective Poisson's ratio: for elastic and thermal this value is set by the user (MP,PRXY); for plastic and creep this value is set at 0.5.
JS represents the sum of element conduction and displacement current densities.
Calculated Joule heat generation rate per unit volume (JHEAT) may be made available for a subsequent thermal analysis with companion thermal elements.
For a timeharmonic analysis, Joule losses (JHEAT) are timeaveraged. These values are stored in both the real and imaginary data sets. For more information, see Quasistatic Electric Analysis in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
For a timeharmonic analysis, elastic (UE), mutual (UM), and dielectric (UD) energies are timeaveraged. Their real part represents the average energy, while the imaginary part represents the average energy loss. For more information, see Piezoelectrics in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
For a timeharmonic analysis, total strain (UT) energy is timeaveraged. The real part represents the average energy, while the imaginary part represents the average energy loss. For more information, see Thermoelasticity in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
With the normalized concentration approach, CONC is the actual concentration obtained by multiplying the saturated concentration (MP,CSAT) and the normalized concentration evaluated at the element centroid. For more information, see Normalized Concentration Approach in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
Nonlinear solution, output only if the element has a nonlinear material, or if largedeflection effects are enabled (NLGEOM,ON).
Output listed for this coupled analysis is in addition to the structural field output at the beginning of this table.
Table 223.8: PLANE223 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through the ETABLE command using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) of the Basic Analysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this reference for more information. The following notation is used in Table 223.8: PLANE223 Item and Sequence Numbers:
output quantity as defined in the Table 223.7: PLANE223 Element Output Definitions
predetermined Item label for ETABLE command
sequence number for singlevalued or constant element data
Table 223.8: PLANE223 Item and Sequence Numbers
Output Quantity Name  ETABLE Command Input  

Item  E  
CONC  SMISC  1 
UE  NMISC  1 
UD  NMISC  2 
UM  NMISC  3 
UT  NMISC  4 
PHEAT  NMISC  5 
PLANE223 assumes a unit thickness.
PLANE223 uses 2 x 2 and 3 point integration rules to calculate the element matrices and load vectors for the quad and triangle geometries, respectively.
In a piezoelectric or electrostaticstructural analysis, electric charge loading is interpreted as negative electric charge or negative charge density.
In a coupledfield analysis with structural degrees of freedom, the model should have at least two elements in each direction to avoid the hourglass mode.
Optimized nonlinear solution defaults are applied in coupledfield analyses with structural degrees of freedom using this element.
The element must lie in a global XY plane as shown in Figure 223.1: PLANE223 Geometry and the Yaxis must be the axis of symmetry for axisymmetric analyses.
An axisymmetric structure should be modeled in the +X quadrants.
A face with a removed midside node implies that the degreesoffreedom vary linearly, rather than parabolically, along that face. See Quadratic Elements (Midside Nodes) in the Modeling and Meshing Guide for more information about the use of midside nodes.
In an analysis with structural and diffusion degrees of freedom coupled by the stress migration effect (specified using TB,MIGR), the following are not supported:
midside nodes;
the weak coupling option (KEYOPT(2) = 1).
In a coupledfield electromagnetic analysis, all VOLT degrees of freedom must be coupled (CP).
This element may not be compatible with other elements with the VOLT degree of freedom. To be compatible, the elements must have the same reaction solution for the VOLT DOF. Elements that have an electric charge reaction solution must all have the same electric charge reaction sign. For more information, see Element Compatibility in the LowFrequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide.
When a coupledfield analysis with structural degrees of freedom uses mixed uP formulation (KEYOPT(11) = 1), no midside nodes can be dropped. When using mixed formulation (KEYOPT(11) = 1), use the sparse solver (default).
Stress stiffening is always included in geometrically nonlinear (NLGEOM,ON) coupledfield analyses with structural degrees of freedom. Prestress effects can be activated via the PSTRES command.
Graphical Solution Tracking (/GST) is not supported with the coupleddiffusion analyses (KEYOPT(1) = 100001, 100010, and 100011).
Reaction forces are not available for an electrostaticstructural analysis (KEYOPT(1) = 1001) with the elastic air option (KEYOPT(4) = 1).