3-D Spar (or Truss)
LINK180 is a 3-D spar that is useful in a variety of engineering applications. The element can be used to model trusses, sagging cables, links, springs, and so on. The element is a uniaxial tension-compression element with three degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. Tension-only (cable) and compression-only (gap) options are supported. As in a pin-jointed structure, no bending of the element is considered. Plasticity, creep, rotation, large deflection, and large strain capabilities are included.
By default, LINK180 includes stress-stiffness terms in any analysis that includes large-deflection effects. Elasticity, isotropic hardening plasticity, kinematic hardening plasticity, Hill anisotropic plasticity, Chaboche nonlinear hardening plasticity, and creep are supported. To simulate the tension-/compression-only options, a nonlinear iterative solution approach is necessary. Added mass, hydrodynamic added mass and loading, and buoyant loading are available.
See LINK180 for more information about this element.
The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for
this element are shown in Figure 180.1: LINK180 Geometry. The
element is defined by two nodes, the cross-sectional area (
A) input via the SECTYPE and SECDATA commands, added mass per unit length (
ADDMAS) input via the SECCONTROL command, and the material properties.
The element x-axis is oriented along the length of the element
from node I toward node J. If ocean loading is present, the global
origin is normally at the mean sea level, with the global Z-axis pointing
away from the center of the earth; however, the vertical location
can be adjusted via
Val6) on the OCDATA command (following
the OCTYPE,BASIC command).
Element loads are described in Nodal Loading. Temperatures may be input as element body loads at the nodes. The node I temperature T(I) defaults to TUNIF. The node J temperature T(J) defaults to T(I).
LINK180 allows a change in cross-sectional area as a function of axial elongation. By default, the cross-sectional area changes such that the volume of the element is preserved, even after deformation. The default is suitable for elastoplastic applications. By using KEYOPT(2), you may choose to keep the cross section constant or rigid.
LINK180 offers compression-and-tension, tension-only, and compression-only options. Specify the desired behavior via the SECCONTROL command.
When ocean loading is applied, the loading is nonlinear (that is, based on the square of the relative velocity between the structure and the water). Accordingly, the full Newton-Raphson option (NROPT,FULL) may be necessary to achieve optimal results. (Full Newton-Raphson is applied automatically in an analysis involving large-deflection effects [NLGEOM,ON].)
UX, UY, UZ
MP command: EX, (PRXY or NUXY), ALPX (or CTEX or THSX), DENS, GXY, ALPD, BETD, DMPR
|Birth and death|
Cross-section scaling (applies only when large-deflection effects [NLGEOM,ON] are specified):
Enforce incompressibility; cross section is scaled as a function of axial stretch (default).
Section is assumed to be rigid.
Additional hydrodynamic printout
The solution output associated with the element is in two forms:
Nodal displacements included in the overall nodal solution
Additional element output as shown in Table 180.1: LINK180 Element Output Definitions.
The Element Output Definitions table uses the following notation:
A colon (:) in the Name column indicates that the item can be accessed by the Component Name method (ETABLE, ESOL). The O column indicates the availability of the items in the file Jobname.OUT. The R column indicates the availability of the items in the results file.
In either the O or R columns, “Y” indicates that the item is always available, a number refers to a table footnote that describes when the item is conditionally available, and “-” indicates that the item is not available.
Table 180.1: LINK180 Element Output Definitions
|NODES||Nodes - I, J||Y||Y|
|XC, YC, ZC||Center location||Y||1|
|TEMP||Temperatures T(I), T(J)||Y||Y|
|FORCE||Member force in the element coordinate system||Y||Y|
|EPELxx||Axial elastic strain||Y||Y|
|EPEQ||Plastic equivalent strain||2||2|
|Cur.Yld.Flag||Current yield flag||2||2|
|Plwk||Plastic strain energy density||2||2|
|Creq||Creep equivalent strain||2||2|
|Crwk_Creep||Creep strain energy density||2||2|
|EPPLxx||Axial plastic strain||2||2|
|EPCRxx||Axial creep strain||2||2|
|EPTHxx||Axial thermal strain||3||3|
|EXT PRESS||External pressure at integration point||4||4|
|EFFECTIVE TENS||Effective tension on link||4||4|
|The following values apply to ocean loading only: |
|GLOBAL COORD||Element centroid location||5||Y|
|VR, VZ||Radial and vertical fluid particle velocities (VR is always > 0)||5||Y|
|AR, AZ||Radial and vertical fluid particle accelerations||5||Y|
|PHDYN||Dynamic fluid pressure head||5||Y|
|ETA||Wave amplitude over integration point||5||Y|
|TFLUID||Fluid temperature (printed if VISC is nonzero)||5||Y|
|VISC||Viscosity (output if VISC is nonzero)||5||Y|
|REN, RET||Normal and tangential Reynolds numbers (if VISC is nonzero)||5||Y|
|CT||Input tangential drag coefficients evaluated at Reynolds numbers||5||Y|
|CDY, CDZ||Input normal drag coefficients evaluated at Reynolds numbers||5||Y|
|CMY, CMZ||Input inertia coefficients evaluated at Reynolds numbers||5||Y|
|URT, URN||Tangential (parallel to element axis) and normal relative velocities||5||Y|
|ABURN||Vector sum of normal (URN) velocities||5||Y|
|AN||Accelerations normal to element||5||Y|
|FX, FY, FZ||Hydrodynamic tangential and normal forces in element coordinates||5||Y|
|ARGU||Effective position of wave (radians)||5||Y|
Available only at the centroid as a *GET item.
The element printout also includes 'INT, SEC PTS' (which are always '1, Y Z' where Y and Z both have values of 0.0). These values are printed to maintain formatting consistency with the output printouts of the BEAM188, BEAM189, PIPE288, and PIPE289 elements.
Table 180.2: LINK180 Item and Sequence Numbers lists output available through ETABLE using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) and The Item and Sequence Number Table in this reference for more information. The following notation is used in Table 180.2: LINK180 Item and Sequence Numbers:
Table 180.2: LINK180 Item and Sequence Numbers
|Output Quantity Name||ETABLE and ESOL Command Input|
|EXT PRESS ||SMISC||3||-||-|
|EFFECTIVE TENS ||SMISC||4||-||-|
|The following output quantities are valid for ocean loading only and are averaged values for the element: |
|GLOBAL COORD||NMISC||1, 2, 3||--||--|
|VR, VZ||NMISC||4, 5||--||--|
|AR, AZ||NMISC||6, 7 ||--||--|
|REN, RET||NMISC||12, 13 ||--||--|
|CDY, CDZ||NMISC||15, 16||--||--|
|CMY, CMZ||NMISC||17, 18 ||--||--|
|URT, URN||NMISC||19, 20, 21||--||--|
|AN||NMISC||23, 24 ||--||--|
|FX, FY, FZ||NMISC||25, 26, 27||--||--|
This item is not available via the ESOL command.
The spar element assumes a straight bar, axially loaded at its ends, and of uniform properties from end to end.
The length of the spar must be greater than zero, so nodes I and J must not be coincident.
The cross-sectional area must be greater than zero.
The temperature is assumed to vary linearly along the length of the spar.
The displacement shape function implies a uniform stress in the spar.
To simulate the tension-/compression-only options, a nonlinear iterative solution approach is necessary.
When the element is used in an ocean environment:
The three-dimensional effect of water pressure on the element is adjusted, as the element has only one direct stress. For more information, see Hydrostatic Loads in the Mechanical APDL Theory Reference.
The output axial force may not be exact when using ocean loading with nonlinear materials.
When used in the product(s) listed below, the stated product-specific restrictions apply to this element in addition to the general assumptions and restrictions given in the previous section.
ANSYS Mechanical Pro
Birth and death is not available.
Initial state is not available.
Ocean loading is not available.
Linear perturbation is not available.
ANSYS Mechanical Premium
Birth and death is not available.