Matrix or Vector | Shape Functions | Integration Points |
---|---|---|

Stiffness Matrix; and Thermal, Newton-Raphson | Equation 11–6 | 1 |

Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Load Vectors | Equation 11–6 | 2 [1] |

Mass and Stress Stiffening Matrices | Equation 11–6, Equation 11–7, and Equation 11–8 | 1 |

Load Type | Distribution |
---|---|

Element Temperature | Linear along length |

Nodal Temperature | Linear along length |

Reference: Cook et al.([117])

The theory for this element is a reduction of the theory for BEAM189 - 3-D 3-Node Beam. The reductions include only 2 nodes, no bending or shear effects, no pressures, and the entire element as only one integration point.

The element is not capable of carrying bending loads. The stress is assumed to be uniform over the entire element.