## 13.190. SOLSH190 - 3-D 8-Node Layered Solid Shell Matrix or VectorShape FunctionsIntegration Points
Stiffness and Stress Stiffness Matrices; and Thermal Load VectorEquation 11–214, Equation 11–215, and Equation 11–216

In-plane:
2 x 2

Thru-the-thickness:
2 if no shell section
defined
1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 per layer
if a shell section is
defined

Mass MatrixSame as stiffness matrixSame as stiffness matrix
TriangleEquation 11–49 and Equation 11–503
Element TemperatureBilinear in-plane of element, linear thru each layer
Nodal TemperatureTrilinear thru element
PressureBilinear across each face

### 13.190.1. Other Applicable Sections

Structures describes the derivation of structural element matrices and load vectors as well as stress evaluations. General Element Formulations gives the general element formulations used by this element.

### 13.190.2. Theory

SOLSH190 is a 3-D solid element free of locking in bending-dominant situations. Unlike shell elements, SOLSH190 is compatible with general 3-D constitutive relations and can be connected directly with other continuum elements.

SOLSH190 utilizes a suite of special kinematic formulations, including assumed strain method (Bathe and Dvorkin()) to overcome locking when the shell thickness becomes extremely small.

SOLSH190 employs enhanced strain formulations (Simo and Rifai(), Simo et al.()) to improve the accuracy in in-plane bending situations. The satisfaction of the in-plane patch test is ensured. Incompatible shape functions are used to overcome the thickness locking.

### 13.190.3. Shear Correction

The element allows for parabolic enhanced transverse shear strains. Stresses are then calculated from enhanced shear strains.