Defines the reference temperature for thermal strain calculations.

Compatible Products: DesSpc | Pro | Premium | Enterprise | Ent PP | Ent Solver | DYNA


Reference temperature for thermal expansion.

Note:  If the uniform temperature (TUNIF) is not specified, it is also set to this value.

Command Default

Reference temperature is 0.0 degrees.


Defines the reference temperature for the thermal strain calculations in structural analyses and explicit dynamic analyses. Thermal strains are given by  α * (T - TREF), where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion. Input the strain via ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ (the secant or mean coefficient value), or CTEX, CTEY, CTEZ (the instantaneous coefficient value), or the thermal strain value (THSX, THSY, THSZ). T is the element temperature. If α is temperature-dependent, TREF should be in the range of temperatures you define using the MPTEMP command.

Reference temperatures may also be input per material by specifying a value on the MP material property command:


Only a constant (non-temperature-dependent) value is valid. The value input on the TREF command applies to all materials not having a specified material property definition.

To convert temperature-dependent secant coefficients of thermal expansion (SCTE) data (properties ALPX, ALPY, ALPZ) from the definition temperature to the reference temperature defined via a TREF (or MP,REFT) command, issue the MPAMOD command.

This command is also valid in PREP7.

Menu Paths

Main Menu>Preprocessor>Loads>Define Loads>Settings>Reference Temp
Main Menu>Preprocessor>Loads>Load Step Opts>Other>Reference Temp
Main Menu>Preprocessor>LS-DYNA Options>Loading Options>Reference Temp
Main Menu>Solution>Define Loads>Settings>Reference Temp
Main Menu>Solution>Load Step Opts>Other>Reference Temp
Main Menu>Solution>Loading Options>Reference Temp

Release 18.2 - © ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.